Computer Basic Knowledge , Types of Computers
दोस्तों आज के समय में कंप्यूटर की जानकारी होना बहुत जरुरी है। Computer Basic Knowledge पाने के लिए आप Books , Internet , Youtube का इस्तेमाल कर सकते हो। नीचे आपको कंप्यूटर की basic जानकारी हिंदी एवं English दोनों भाषा में देने का प्रयास किया गया है।
Computer Basic Knowledge
शुरूआती समय में जब कंप्यूटर मशीन का इस्तेमाल शुरू हुआ था तो यह मशीन केवल कैलकुलेशन को हल करने के लिए इस्तेमाल की जाती थी। लेकिन समय के साथ साथ कंप्यूटर मशीन भी कैलकुलेटर मशीन से multipurpose machine में बदल गई। अब हम कंप्यूटर मशीन पर variety of task like painting, playing music, playing movie , generating document and presentation etc. सभी तरह के काम कर सकते है।
The development of computer कंप्यूटर का विकास
Dos based computer
Window based desktop
Hand Held Tablet
Generation of computer कंप्यूटर की पीढ़ी
The Development of Computer divided into five generation
First generation of computers
सन 1940 से 1952 के बीच बने कंप्यूटर को First generation computer कहा जाता है।
The first generation computers were as big as the size of the room.
Thousands of vacuum tubes were used in these computers.
The operating speed was very slow.
some popular computers of first generation.
ENIAC, EDSAC, EDVAC, mark ll, Mark l, IBM 650,
Second generation of computers
Second generation of computers सन 1953 से 1963 के बीच बने कंप्यूटर को कहते है।
The vacuum tubes were replaced by transistors.
These computers were smaller in size and faster in speed.
These computer had greater storage capacity.
some popular computers of second generation
IBM 140, Mark lll, LEO, IBM 162, CDC 3600 etc .
Third generation of computers
Third generation of computers सन 1964 से 1971 के बीच बनाए गए थे।
The new components used in these computers was also known as integrated circuits.
The computer became more powerful and smaller with higher speed.
The devices of these computers were less expensive.
High level language were used in third generation computers.
Popular computers of third generation
ICL, CDC, IBM 360, PDP11, ICL 1900 etc .
Fourth generation of computers
Fourth generation of computers सन 1972 से 1985 के बीच में develop किये गए।
The technology has made it possible to place thousand of electronic components on a small chip.
These computers were smaller in size, highly reliable and efficient in the performance.
These are being widely used in home and offices.
popular computers of fourth generation.
IBM PCs and Apple Macintosh computer
Fifth generation of computers
The fifth generation of computer started in the year 1986
The computers of 5th generation included the concept of artificial intelligence which is the thinking power of the computer.
It is still in the development stage.
Classification of computers कंप्यूटर के प्रकार
There are three forms of computers :- Analog computer , Digital computer and Hybrid computer Hybrid computer is the combination of both analog and digital computers.
Analog computer works on the principle of the data input to a computer is continuous in nature and the result obtained after comparison.
Analogue computer represented the data in term of physical measurement.
A thermometer, voltmeter, speedometer and metre scale are some example of analog computers.
Digital computer works with the data in binary form (0,1) only .
All kind of calculation in mathematics, advanced mathematics accounts etc are generally done in digital computer.
Micro computer, Laptop computer are the example of Digital computer.
A hybrid computer combines the features of both digital and analog computer.
it accept varying as well as constant input to give accurate results.
ECG machine used by doctor is an example of HYBRID COMPUTER.
Digital computers are divided into four main categories
Micro computers are smaller in size. They are known as PC (Personal Computer).
These are the most widely used computers micro computer used Microprocessor chip.
Micro Computer Basically used :- Home’s, in school, in banks, in offices etc.
Some examples of micro computers are : IBM-PC, APPLE MACINTOSH,HCL etc.
A mini computer is more capable than micro computers. They are larger, faster , and costlier than micro computers.
It has larger memory capacity. These are used by the big organisation like banks and big industries.
Example for mini computers are – VAX 11, PDP 11/45 etc.
A mainframe is a large expensive and very powerful computer with higher storage capacity.
Mainframe can process up to millions of instructions per second.
It is mostly used for scientific research purpose and for the reservation system of railway and airlines.
Examples of main frame : IBM 3000 series, UNIVAC 1130 etc.
Super computers are extremely large computers. They are most expensive fastest and used computers with a large storage area.
They are used for weather forecasting, controlling satellites and missiles, intensive calculations, animated graphics and other work that required high power computers.
Examples of super Computer are CRAY -1, CRAY X -MP , PARAM 10000 etc.
Types of Digital computer
- Handheld Computer
Click Here : What is computer in hindi
- Laptop weight around 2-5 kgs and is the size of a note book .
- It operate on battery and is easy to carry.
- Laptop support all standard software that are supported by desktop.
- Handheld Computers are smaller than laptops.
- They posses limited processing capability .
- They are normally used to take down quick notes and perform calculations.
- Palmtop are the least expensive of all portables.
- They also have the least processing power.
- They are small enough to fit into a human palm and are used as digital organisers.
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Computer Basic Knowledge